The word “fascist” has been used as an epithet rather casually in the last two years, especially in commentary on US politics. In the hope of bringing clarity to this slippery term, Erstwhile editor Graeme Pente sat down with Dr. Mike Ortiz (Ph.D., CU Boulder, 2017), whose dissertation focused on global anti-fascism in the interwar period, and Alex Langer (Ph.D. candidate, CU Boulder), whose dissertation examines US relations with Italy during the Cold War. You can listen to the full audio of their conversation below, or read the edited transcripts in three parts (Definitions, Origins, and The Present). The audio contains additional discussion of Cuba, China, and authoritarian vs. democratic populism. As always, the views expressed here are those of the individual speakers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editorial board.